Common disaster-handling


Hot, stiff sun can cause edema, rash, cramps or fainting, exhaustion, thermal shock. Timely treatment for effective therapy, health protection.

Thermal edema

When having to go or work in the hot sun, or suddenly from the air-conditioned room to the sun, the body areas in the lower part as the ankle, the foot are susceptible to varicose blood vessels to exhaust heat. This phenomenon may appear for several hours or a few days, after which the body is fully adapt to the environment.

Location: Prescribe high legs when sleeping to normal circulation blood vessels. It is not advisable to drink diuretic juices to reduce the edema because it will cause the body to take more water, which can be detrifor the body.


In areas where the skin is exposed to the sun or the temperature is too high, the sweat glands are clod, can not escape to evaporate. Then you are prone to dermatitis, manifested into many small red nodules on the skin, causing sensations such as needles or itching.

Location: This rash will expire automatically after a period of time, without the need for special treatment. If multiple itching, use of conventional allergic drugs, while limiting exposure to sunlight, the disease will be self-excluded.

Cramps (Cramp)

Cramps cause you to have a sudden painful sensation, stiff muscles of the abdominal wall, thighs or lower leg. The disease usually appears in heavy laborers, high-intensity workout athletes. When heavy operations, the muscles must work continuously with intense intensity. The body loses water, salt, and the electrochemical processes through excessive sweating, causing a muscle strain.

The: Use conventional analgesics to combine rest, move to cool place, drink compensated with mineral salts. Drinking water is insufficient to meet the body’s salt and water loss needs. Water with mineral salts of electric water solutions, lemon juice with salt, sugar… After rest, the hydration of the symptoms will diminishes and recovers completely.


People long traveled in the hot sun, climbing, many moves, military exercises… The ease of fainting caused by increased sweating reduces salt and water but is not replenished promptly. The volume of water in the blood vessels decreases, causing hypotension, reducing blood flow to the brain when standing.

Hypothermia is often accompanied by other manifestations such as confusion, dizziness, eye flowers, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, little urination, urine concentrates, and so on.

Location: This case needs first aid immediately to reduce the body’s testimony. First aid steps include: for the faint-headed fainting, moving to the cool air area, extending the garment, mineral salt water compensation. Keep track for 30 minutes, if the condition is stable, not going to the hospital.

Doctor Examination for emergency patients at the hospital. Photo: Chile.

Doctor Examination for emergency patients at the hospital. Photo: Chile.


The person exhausted when going to the sun because of loss of salt and water for longer periods than the above situations. When exhausted, the body is very much sweating, a feeling of chills, cold and moist skin, rapid circuits, headaches, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, cramps, fatigue, fainting… Heavier, the exhausted person may suffer from heat stroke, which is the most severe disease in pathologies caused by a temperature increase.

Location: Need to stop all activities, switch to cool place and hydration, mineral salts with appropriate solutions… After the rest time, the body will recover completely. Also can use cool towel to wipe, apply to many vascular areas such as forehead, back, armpits, inguinal… To absorb heat, help the body to waste heat faster. Drink as much water as possible.

In 30 minutes to an hour, symptoms do not improve which increases, for example headaches, vomiting, more dizziness, need hospital treatment.

Thermal shock

Thermal shock occurs when the body is too hot, which is long in high temperature, causing body temperature up to 40 degrees Celsius or higher. At the time, people were shocked by the loss of salt and prolonged water, the body’s central air-conditioning center was operating overload.

This is the most severe ear due to heat, the mortality rate is equivalent to stroke. In addition, prolonged hyperthermia will damage the cardiovascular system, respiration, liver, kidney and especially the nervous system. Symptoms such as headache, dizziness, nausea, drowsiness, sensory disturbances, convulsions and coma.

Location: Quick first aid temporary heat shock by giving the victim a low head, moving away from the high temperature zone. Rapidly reduce heat to victims such as fan, soak in cool water for a few minutes combining the cold towel or ice water in areas on the body with many blood vessels such as forehead, back, armpits, inguinal… After first aid, it is necessary to move the victim The earliest hospital.

Dr Nguyen Dang Khiem
Head of emergency department, Friendship Hospital


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